Wednesday, January 15, 2020

Boundaryless organization

Jack Welch of General Electric (GE) coined the phrase â€Å"The Boundaryless Organization†. He believed and has been proven correct, that GE would be much more effective if the cultural, geographical and organizational barriers that separated the employees become more permeable. He put emphasis on the boundaries’ ability to enable business, rather than get in its way. In the next era of the information age, we will expect to have information from multiple parts of the enterprise at our fingertips, all integrated to suit our specific needs, instantly available, across geographies, time zones and organizational structures.In order to achieve that and to enable the information age to realize its full potential, we need to allow â€Å"Boundaryless Information Flow† – a continuous secure stream of information seamlessly flowing within and among enterprises, across permeable boundaries. To achieve Boundrayless Information Flow, a top manager in an organization n eeds to put in place infrastructure services that bring data sources together and provide that information to those users and applications that need it. Creating the environment for integrated information has been a challenge.What more once regarded as necessary boundaries between the different stages in operational processes designed to achieve the benefits of specialization, now represent silos delivering outmoded solutions, which do not allow for the sharing of information. Barriers at the business and technical level must be broken down. If we take the case and strategic history of JetBlue and put it in the concept of Jack Welch, in my opinion the easiest boundary to remove was the â€Å"cultural boundry† in the whole organization that diverted their direction from bottom to top.For e. g. , simply by implementing the snacks serving instead of food in the flight have ease the passengers of every region, since food is always region specific but snacks are commonly taken in every part of the world. Further this step removed trolley movement within the flight i. e. also a strong step towards passenger comfort. Secondly, the most difficult boundary to remove for JetBlue would be the geographical boundaries.Since, assessing in the synopsis the overall performance of JetBlue, it witnesses their success because of their operation in specific region. However, in my opinion it would be real difficult to further enhance their operations in other regions since the attitude and working environment JetBlue have developed, cannot be managed in every part of the world. (for more details, see the www. opengroup. org/downloads official site)

Tuesday, January 7, 2020

Egyptian Art and Architecture - 4176 Words

Egyptian Art and Architecture I INTRODUCTION Egyptian Art and Architecture, the buildings, paintings, sculpture, and allied arts of ancient Egypt, from prehistoric times to its conquest by the Romans in 30 bc. Egypt had the longest unified history of any civilization in the ancient Mediterranean, extending with few interruptions from about 3000 bc to the 4th century ad. The nature of the country, fertilized and united by the Nile, and its semi-isolation from outside cultural influences, produced an artistic style that changed little during this long period. Art in all its forms was devoted principally to the service of the pharaoh, who was considered a god on Earth, to the state, and to religion. From early times a belief in a life†¦show more content†¦The great Step Pyramid in which the remains of the king were laid is the oldest surviving example of monumental architecture; it also illustrates one of the phases in the development of the true pyramid. The architecture of the Old Kingdom can be described as monumental in the sense that native limestone and granite were used for the construction of large-scale buildings and tombs. Of the temples built during this period little remains. The pyramid complex at Giza where the kings of the 4th Dynasty were buried illustrates the ability of Egyptian architects to construct monuments that remain wonders of the world. The Great Pyramid of Khufu originally stood about 146 m (480 ft) high and contained about 2.3 million blocks with an average weight of 2.5 tonnes each. The purpose of pyramids was to preserve and protect the bodies of the kings for eternity. Each pyramid had a valley temple, a landing and staging area, and a pyramid temple or cult chapel where religious rites for the kings spirit were performed. Around the three major pyramids at Giza a necropolis (city of the dead) grew up, which contained mastabas (Arabic, mastabah, mud-brick bench), flat-roofed tombs with sloping slides, so called because of their resemblance to the sloped mud-brick benches in front of Egyptian houses. The mastabas were for the members of the royal family, highShow MoreRelated Egyptian Art and Architecture Essay examples4113 Words   |  17 Pages Egyptian Art and Architecture Egyptian Art and Architecture, the buildings, paintings, sculpture, and allied arts of ancient Egypt, from prehistoric times to its conquest by the Romans in 30 bc. Egypt had the longest unified history of any civilization in the ancient Mediterranean, extending with few interruptions from about 3000 bc to the 4th century ad. The nature of the country, fertilized and united by the Nile, and its semi-isolation from outside cultural influences, produced an artisticRead MoreAncient Egypt : An Ancient Civilization1523 Words   |  7 Pagesof the world’s greatest, would last over 3000 years thanks to the many Egyptians contributing to its success. One such Egyptian was the Pharaoh, Akhenaton. Born to King Amenhotep III, Akhenaton ascended to the throne at around 1353 BCE . He was also known as Amenhotep IV, but would later change his name to Akhenaton in order to worship the god â€Å"Aton† . Akhenaton may be considered one of the most important figures in Egyptian history seeing that in the seventeen years he ruled , Akhenaton was a veryRead MoreAccording to the modern researchers, the Mesopotamian and Egyptian civilizations likely seem very1200 Words   |  5 PagesAccording to the modern researchers, the Mesopotamian and Egyptian civilizations likely seem very similar. They had cities, a relatively high standard of living, music, arts , religion, writing, and literature.They both developed at the same time . However, they differed in important and some different ways, especially in terms of culture, politics, religion, art and architecture. Also, they have the geography which is their located differently. Egypt lies on the fertile Nile River valley ,Read MoreAncient Egyptian Art And Sculpture1259 Words   |  6 PagesThere are many different art styles around the world that developed in various ways. Ancient Egyptian art is around 5 thousand years old, and it is a major contributor to late Mesolithic Art. It arose and took place in the Nile Valley. Ancient Egyptian art attained a high level in sculpture and painting, and was extremely stylized and symbolic. Most of the Egyptian sculptures that have been well-preserved were initially made for temples and/or tombs. All Egyptian art and sculpture was based on theRead More Original Definition of Art Essay1489 Words   |  6 Pages My definition of art is imagination and passion expressed by creating a visual feature. I consider art to be a figurative of the imagination because everything starts with thought. People create life by thinking of ways to develop; this then creates art. It is as simple as watching a child draw a picture. I can recall imagining a picture in my head and expressing my thoughts on paper. The drawing did not come out as I imagined but it took me to a place and every time I saw the picture I thoughtRead MoreAncient Egypt : Ancient Egyptian Art1308 Words   |  6 Pages Religious Architechture in ancient Egypt Egyptian art has journeyed through the centuries as one of the most influential phenomenon in human civilization. From the Greeks to the Romans to the people of today, Egyptians and their beautiful representations in art and architecture have proven a legacy in the creations of certain landmarks, statues, and even advertisements. The Greeks derived many of their statues from Egyptian sculptures, such as the Kouros 600 B.C. The Roman emperorRead MoreThe Achievements Of Ancient Egypt1291 Words   |  6 PagesTemples, tombs and pyramids have all witnessed this earth for thousands of years. These architectural achievements show us that Egypt s greatest virtue lie in its architecture. One Ancient Egypt’s greatest cultural achievements was undoubtedly in their architecture associated with religion. If you were to travel to Egypt what would you expect to see? Pyramid after temple after tomb, each standing the test of time. They all stand out, they are all associated with religious b eliefs, they all haveRead MoreThe Importance Of Ancient Egypt1223 Words   |  5 Pagesfascination with all things Egyptian began long before Napoleon launched excavations and studies of Egypt remains and culture. Evidence of a fascination with Egypt can be found in Rome itself dating back to before Augustus’ victory at Actium in 31 B.C. The Roman fascination with Egypt will be best explored by focusing on art and architecture within Rome at the temple of Isis at Pompeii that is influenced by Egypt. To understand how Egyptian influence over art and architecture came to be it is necessaryRead MoreEgyptian, Islamic and Roman Architecture Essay1539 Words   |  7 PagesEgyptian Civilization: I chose Egyptian civilization because it’s known as the birthplace of modern civilization. Another reason I chose Egyptian civilization is because its contributions to the world still seen, studied and absorbers. Egypt contribution has come along way and has mad an impact in on thousands of cultures worldwide. Some of Egypt’s contributions I will address are arts, literature and architecture. The Egyptians had little wood to build their buildings and monuments. The EgyptiansRead MoreAncient Egypt And Ancient Egyptian Civilization847 Words   |  4 Pagesknown for its great pieces of art and architecture, advanced engineering skills, and even its use of medicine. One of the most interesting parts of this culture was its belief in the afterlife. This belief was so widely accepted and important to the people of Egypt that it influenced many aspects of their everyday lives. The version of the afterlife that the Egyptians believed in was very different from other religions and cultures. The immortality ideology is something that many cultures grappled

Monday, December 30, 2019

One application of magnetic fields in household appliances.

One thing that uses magnetic fields is the electric motor, which is used in many household appliances, such as electric fans, microwave ovens, and other small appliances. In this instance the electric motor has an electric current, giving it also this magnetic field. An electric motor converts electricity into mechanical motion. Most electric motors work by electromagnetism, but motors based on electrostatic forces also exist. The overarching concept is that a force is generated when a current-carrying element is subjected to a magnetic field. In a cylindrical motor, the rotor rotates because a torque is developed when this force is applied at a given distance from the axis of the rotor. Most electromagnetic motors are rotary, but†¦show more content†¦The fundamental principle upon which electromagnetic motors are based is that there is a mechanical force on any wire when it is conducting electricity while contained within a magnetic field. The force is described by the Lorentz force law and is perpendicular to both the wire and the magnetic field. In a rotary motor, there is a rotating element, the rotor. The rotor rotates because the wires and magnetic field are arranged so that a torque is developed about the rotors axis. In physics, magnetism is a phenomenon by which materials exert an attractive or repulsive force on other materials. ... An electrostatic motor or capacitor motor is a type of electric motor based on the attraction and repulsion of electric charge. ... Piezoelectricity is the ability of certain crystals to produce a voltage when subjected to mechanical stress. ... In physics, the Lorentz force is the force exerted on a charged particle in an electromagnetic field. ... Most magnetic motors are rotary, but linear types also exist. In a rotary motor, the rotating part (usually on the inside) is called the rotor, and the stationary part is called the stator. The motor contains electromagnets that are wound on a frame. Though this frame is often called the armature, that term is often erroneously applied. Correctly, the armature is that part ofShow MoreRelatedPermanent Magnet Motor Development And Development Of Permanent Magnetic Materials1235 Words   |  5 PagesPermanent magnet motor was built by a permanent magnet excitation magnetic field to achieve electromechanical energy conversion device, which is electrically excited synchronous motor as a synchronous rotation speed, also known as permanent magnet synchronous motors. Magnet synchronous motor, particularly rare earth permanent magnet synchronous motor compared with the electrical excitation synchronous motor, with a compact, small size, light weight and other characteristics, and the size an d structureRead MoreAre Electromagnetic Field Melt Metal Screw Nuts ( Zinc, Brass, And Stainless Steel1636 Words   |  7 PagesResearch Question and Engineering Goal: Can an electromagnetic field melt metal screw nuts (zinc, brass, and stainless steel)? Our engineering goal is to create a device that will form an electromagnetic field that has the ability to melt an assortment of metals. It might look like magic; however, it is just science! Background: Electromagnetic Field: (noun) a field that is made up of associated electric and magnetic components that result from the motion of an electric charge. It also possessesRead MoreUsing Solar Energy For Functional Working Of Machine1102 Words   |  5 Pagesheat and power production. The market for pellets is still relatively young but rapidly growing in terms of usage and capacity building. For Energy saving cost reduction. We will use solar energy for functional working of machine. V. METHODOLOGY One of the basic factors that affect the choice of a project is the availability of materials, selection of materials, and the cost of the materials for the design or fabrication of the project. The materials selection for the design function depends onRead MoreApplications Of Faraday s Law Of Electromagnetic Induction1933 Words   |  8 Pages B.A.Sc. Utilities Engineering Electromechanical Energy Conversion (EGYA3001) Applications of Faraday’s Law of Electromagnetic Induction Prepared by: Ravi Ramlogan ID# 61928 Date Submitted – 01/10/16 Summary: This report looks into electromagnetic induction as an incredibly useful phenomenon with a wide variety of applications. We explore faraday’s laws of induction applications and construction on how the laws applies to equipment and processes around us. The law has far reachingRead MoreThe Benefits Of Wearable Devices941 Words   |  4 Pagesevolving and aiming to transform various spectres of technology and applications. They are not just a high-tech fashion accessory for millennials, or the next wave of mobile devices for on-the-go consumers. For example, Reemo is currently planning a solution which provides assistive tech to seniors. By using both Samsung Gear S2 smartwatch and SmartThings connected home technology; Reemo helps seniors to perform daily household tasks within couple of seconds. By simple hand gestures, for exampleRead MoreThe Time Of The Internet Of Things1006 Words   |  5 PagesTo stay connected from any time and any where to any one, any thing and all th e things in between is the sole job of the internet of things (IoT). The internet plays an important role in the modern lifestyle of almost all people around the world. From daily routine home chores to industrial means, everything is dependent on the internet either directly or indirectly in order to have network connectivity to each other. The Internet of things came to define several technologies that enable the useRead MorePolymeric Materials Essay1273 Words   |  6 Pagesevidences that made vital role in these past industrial evolution. These materials though broadly helped many industries, few industries are utilized polymeric materials extensively through its extensive new products . Primarily, medical industry application like chemical resistance and biocompatible materials helped to develop plastic syringe, disposable blood storage containers, surgical products, human tissue compatible plastic components, easily digestible and coated medicines and many others. SecondlyRea d MoreHistory Of Brushless Direct Current ( Bldc )1791 Words   |  8 Pagesclassified into two types of waves one is sinusoidal, and another is trapezoidal. The sinusoidal one is defined as a permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) where the trapezoidal type located under the name of permanent magnet Brushless direct current (BLDC) machine. Table (2.1) shows the difference between (PMSM) and (BLDC) motor. Permanent magnet direct current (DC) brushed and brushless motors include a combination of Permanent magnet and electromagnetic fields to produce torque or force whichRead MoreModeling Of A Bldc Motor Essay813 Words   |  4 Pagesphase synchronous machine. Since its rotor is mounted with a permanent magnet, some dynamic characteristics are different. Flux linkage from the rotor is dependent upon the magnet. Therefore, saturation of magnetic flux linkage is typical for this kind of motors. As any typical three phase motors, one structure of the BLDC motor is fed by a three phase voltage source as shown in Figure 2.10. The source is not necessary to be sinusoidal. Square wave or other wave- shape can be applied as long as the peakRead MoreA Magneto Rheological Shock Absorber1962 Words   |  8 Pagesmagneto rheological shock absorber or magneto rheological damper is a damper filled with magneto rheological fluid, which is controlled by magnetic field, usually using an electromagnet. This allows the damping characteristics of the shock absorber to be continuously controlled by varying the current in the electromagnet. This type of shock absorber has found applications in semi-active vehicle suspensions which may adapt to road conditions, as they are driven by continuous sensor monitoring and also with

Saturday, December 21, 2019

Much Ado About Nothing Essay An Exploration of Conformity

Much Ado About Nothing as an Exploration of Conformity In Shakespeares Much Ado About Nothing, Beatrice and Benedict rant about marriage for most of the beginning of the play, while Claudio raves about how wonderful it will be being married to Hero. Yet in the end, Claudio exchanges his marriage to Hero for an opportunity to bash her in public, while Beatrice and Benedick marry despite that they were mortal enemies for most of the first three acts. How did the situation swing around to this degree? Beatrice and Benedick had been using the most extreme metaphors to demonstrate their scorn of each other and of marriage, and Claudio had been doing the same to demonstrate his love of Hero. Not only did none of these three†¦show more content†¦Yet the purpose of the act can be found in its effect : those around Beatrice and Benedick trick them into getting together again, having seen on some subconscious level what the act is for. It is a signal to them to do exactly what they do. Would anyone ever try to bring two sworn enemie s together if they believed the animosity was really there? The entire situation and result is a farce of conformity. Beatrice and Benedick most likely fell apart over some minor quarrel. Both of them being intelligent, several cutting insults probably insued. Escalation led to a total separation which neither of them could cross without breaking several social barriers at once, and so the dance : signaling through their apparent immense hatred of each other that they wanted to be together and could not bridge the gap. With Claudio the situation is reversed. Although there is a misunderstanding between Claudio and Don Pedro near the beginning as to who was wooed by who for whom, Claudio has marriage to Hero in the bag. His pleasure in this is stated and overstated several times. Yet when Don John, who just recently lied to Claudio about Don Pedros wooing Hero for himself, tells him Hero has been having sex with anyone and everyone she could get her hands on, he says, If I see anything tonight why I should not marry her tomorrow, in the congregation where I should wed, there will I shame her. It does not make sense

Friday, December 13, 2019

Political PR essay Free Essays

string(79) " political standpoint and a reconsidering of these raciest’ undertaking\." This practice is useful to inform customers, investors, employees and stakeholders about the products and the political changes and its relevant information. Advertising is part of Public relation Practices through which the message is conveyed about the product to the customer. In media, the mark is only the viewers (Bannered, 2001 In public relation vocation it is significant to know the designing of the communication; through this the PR knows how to write the speech for the company head for the conference held in the public and for the organizations speaker. We will write a custom essay sample on Political PR essay or any similar topic only for you Order Now Political Participation issue The difficulty of unconcerned political participation can be abstracted as equally a source and as a result of lots of the appraisals of democratic ileitis. Public relations practice is ordinarily seen as an ill-disposed methodology described by rivalry, clash, and force battles among chosen delegates. The manifestation of agent majority rule government is regularly joined with a thought of national political support that principally incorporates voting in races. In its available structure, on the other hand, agent majority rule government regularly prompts choices â€Å"for the numerous being made by a couple of† that incidentally (or not) under-speak to minority (race, class, sex, and so on. ) investments. The majority of Public relation refashions experience the heave of two essentially diverse advances to public relation practices. One is derived from the marketing philosophy of the private segment; moreover the further stays to the conventional perception of the PR (Public relations) practices like a district record, information warehouse, plus foundation stone of democracy. Assessment of Public relation professionals undertaking declarations substantiates that, whereas most Public relation practices operate someplace among these two limits, hardly any have the same opinion on the clear-cut principle of the Public elation practices (De Button, 1997). An alternate discussion liberated declaration of thoughts- urban PR-?in case, its democratic character had been tested by the relentless infringement of personal investments in the past public coliseums plus with the wish of the public for forbidden and protected relations. Stashers characterizes PR as â€Å"a situation for level headed discussion, the activity of civil rights as residents, and a relation in which the individuals of various foundations are able to take care as an issue† (Stashers Thompson, 1997). Genuine PR likewise possesses a soaring level of charge f the user, and is not eased by company or management impedance. The decay of public relations is capable of being followed to similar overall patterns like government rationalizing development of communal force, and the data plus correspondence engineering upheaval. Monetarily strapped urban areas can’t stand to keep up public conveniences, for example, stops, and reach rely on upon the private segment to load the crevice. Community squares and shopping centre are in fact PR nevertheless they assimilate with the personal domain. People encompass the right to bar some parts Of inversion with the community. Individuals are greeted provided they are operational, shopping, or consuming there, yet utilization of this kind of liberty isn’t a privilege, however a benefit. The prerequisite that this kind of relations is together productive and safe has prompted an interest for aggregate administration and illicit conduct, which blocks biased movement and demoralizes the public measurement of the gap (Midshipman, 1999). It additionally estranges plus debilitates a feeling of having a relation as well as group for huge fragments of civilization. Our expanding inclination for retention and safekeeping â€Å"decreases communal communication as well as differing qualities, but in light of the fact that outsiders of contrasting ages, classes, traditions, sexual orientations, and beliefs have a smaller amount of chance to blend in the identical substantial relations† (Luckier Hopkins, 2002). The trouncing of municipal liberty and the consequential absence Of uncased communal relation is harming to a democracy. In what capacity would people be able to create resistance and acknowledgement of contrast in an inexorably different society without procurement of relationship alluding for democratic mixing? In what capacity will the public erudite domain be managed and created if there are no physical relations to help it? These are discriminating concerns during a time of fast changes in electronic correspondence, capable weights towards customer independence, and expanding aberrations in riches and right to use the data (Greenshank Workpeople, 1995). Listening to the conclusions of others, paying attention to knowledgeable, expressive presenters on different communal and political fears, exposing our perspectives in a community discussion this eye-to-eye operation powers people in assuming liability intended for their assumptions, as well as to stick to guidelines of common conduct. By taking part completely in these exercises, people set up their personalities to settle on educated decisions regarding which they choose, what they help, and how they help communal pondering. Communal existence is delivered moreover replicated by communal practices that become known in particular spots public talk with the public relations is positively a kind of those persisting as well as fruitful community practices† (Luckier Hopkins, 2002). It possesses uncommon intending to its clients, who embrace â€Å"a profound feeling of spot connection: this kind of relations is a piece of their group, some piece of their communal and social stru cture†. Public relations give safe relationship to free public dialog they â€Å"scatter data so the community can take part in the procedures of administration they are like social occasion places for the group to impart investments and issues In due course, talk among educated natives guarantees common society. This guarantees the flexibility to peruse, to inspect, converse, moreover to partake† (Crania, 2001). Public discourse can enhance as opposed to just occupy us since existence. Since governments keep away from their democratic based obligation to give the relations that form a genuine public domain and like amendments to innovation and data conveyance both section the public domain plus utmost public talk, Pros-?fair, available, constructive, and sustaining can stride into give the spot to group cooperation that reasoning individuals long for. A pledge by public relations to hand out this key part of just life will require a lobbyist, instead of impartial, political standpoint and a reconsidering of these raciest’ undertaking. You read "Political PR essay" in category "Essay examples" Nationality in addition to â€Å"The Public† in Public Relationships A powerful democracy is established in great citizenship. Citizenship qualifies one for taking part in community issues and chooses the destiny of the group, moreover it supposes ability to maintain the public relationships where these political and communal concerns are examined and determined (Stashers Thompson, 1997). In antiquated Greek culture, governmental issues were concerned with organization as well as â€Å"with teaching the native as an issue being which created the ability to do something in the communal concern† (Booking, 1987). Nationality obliged an imaginative incorporation of the single person into his surroundings, requesting a basic personality and a solid feeling of obligation. The Athenians accepted that brilliance in public living was as critical to one’s nature advancement as greatness in personal life, and a resident ought to be there as an advantage for general public, group, as well as his relations and companions (for all time â€Å"his,† lamentably; Athenian residency prohibited ladies) (Booking, 1987). Habeas abstracted two different planets in present day society and guessed that the framework focused around the emends of matter generation progressively meddles with and misshapes the informative action in which the quest for learning and moral comprehension happens (the life humanity) (Barrater 1991). His hypothesis is supported as community circle exercises are debarred as of popularized public relationships. In shopping centre, some indication of opinionated action distributing handouts, political exchanges and addresses, voter enrolment can prompt the removal of the individuals included. Lawful difficulties to these activities of shopping centre holders have once in a while been fruitful (Bannered, 2001). A lot of people supposed â€Å"public† relation zones, for example, shopping Centre confront the meaning Of who comprises â€Å"the public. † These areas are frequently devised situations that â€Å"make a dream of public territory, from which the dangers and vulnerabilities of ordinary life are deliberately altered out† (Bannered). The â€Å"dangers† may incorporate individuals, for example, beggars, the metropolitan poor, the down-and-out, youth, and non-traditionalists of different hoops. In People’s Park in Berkeley, on â€Å"The mount† in stone, in Vancouver, in Los Angels, and in Manhattans South Street Seaport, specific gatherings were focused meant or avoidance as of a PR. These activities spoke to an endeavourer to rethink nationality focused around the ethical prerequisite that parts of this kind of gatherings have to take part properly and accordingly â€Å"gain† their municipal privileges. The battle in People’s commons has been among the college and the recreation center’s down-and-out populace. Given that an understudy challenge in 1969, the recreation centre had worked as an issue public freedom, exempt corporate or state management, plus an essential image of opinionated force. At that point, in 1991, the college chose to put volleyball routs in the commons to be useful for the students plus different parts of the community; tragically, the location they decided to change over into a spare time range had been the conventional spot intended for shows and political arranging plus the spot where numerous vagrants rested. This focal territory, which incorporated the liberated visualization stage, was â€Å"a political area that supported unmediated connection,† a spot wherein vagrants could make them noticeable and listened, could assert a few public areas, and accordingly turn into an authentic piece of the public circle. The Park â€Å"gave he space to speaking to the authenticity Of vagrants inside ‘the public†Ã¢â‚¬Ëœ (Mitchell, 1995). South Street Seaport in Manhattan, an exclusive business range, tries to maintain the â€Å"public relations† of its previous inhabitant, an exhibition hall, yet is intentionally restrictive. It avoids the down-and-out populace that involves the close-by region somewhat by its plan yet fundamentally by the utilization of private police energy. Despite the fact that it is not expressed expressly that vagrants are not greeted, furnished police force are adequately scary vicinity to avoid them (Defiles, 1997). In L. A. Vagrants are starved of a public area as well as spots to sit-?recognized by William White as the mainly vital element for an effective public area-?public toilets, and also public consumption wellsprings (Davis, 1992). Indeed limitations on vagabonds rethink citizenship and the utilization of community territories for building relations. Nathalie Des Rosier calls attention to the incongruity of Vancouver begging local laws â€Å"in another liberal express that accentuates insignificant obstruction in private money related exchanges. † The purpose behind these confinements needs to do with the propagating of public regions ND the â€Å"ethical tensions over destitute cash, expecting that destitute use cash On liquor, tobacco, and illicit medications. By making ordinances focused around negative generalizations, we are fortifying â€Å"an elimination manifestation of nationality established in social worries regarding public areas† (Des, 2002). Stashers depicts the degree to which the industry group of â€Å"The mount,† a college locale in Boulder, were there to confine enter to a gathering of â€Å"counter-civilization early stages† subsequent to an especially rough epis ode. Different people attempt to take care of the issue with no incorporating the adolescent in their exchanges. The vendors had needed to benefit from the bohemian environment of the area without needing to countenance the bohemians. They endeavourer on the way to depict a piece of the public area, I. E. , the alley, to which these youngsters would have be allowed to enter and, in doing in this way, â€Å"endeavourer to make another public to which countercultures gatherings don’t have a place† (Stashers Thompson, 1997). Contradicting to PR â€Å"both cause to be imperceptible that are excluded plus fortifies that imperceptibility through permitting those lilt-in to fondle that they compose the whole community† (Defiles, 1997). This refusal helps the expanding underestimation of the underprivileged and the dispossessed and estranges those individuals, for instance, political campaigners, who don’t comply with the regulated business perfect of purchasers from inside particular focused on ways of life. Not including of specific groups is established in the presumption that they Will act in an illicit, debilitating or overall wrong way, subsequently heading out clients and restricting open doors for business. In spite of the fact that people ought to e careful regarding following up on the desire of improper direct instead of real terrible conduct, they must admire individuals’ sympathy toward their safekeeping. The vicinity of positively undermining people will restrain public cooperation of the more powerless parts of society, for example, ladies and the aged. Incomprehensibly, their pulling out debilitates the group, reduces personal satisfaction, and reinforces the prospective for confusion (Des, 2002). Kristin Day examines alarms ladies boast with Pros and proposes that the off-scrutinized qualities of personalized relations like shopping centre by ay of their attention on utilization, relaxation, safekeeping and restricted conduct and configuration possibly will be well thought-out as great at the time of inspecting ladies’ encounters. She outlines the way the characteristics of a genuine public discussion general admittance, democratic blending amongst outsiders, and liberated trade of perspectives and data don’t essentially encourage ladies’ interest. Access is regularly restricted by a lady’s obligations regarding home and youngsters. Blending† regularly implies men are eyewitnesses, ladies are watched; ladies are likewise debilitated from approaching outsiders for wellbeing reasons. What’s more ladies might be constrained to direct their perspectives and conduct to adjust towards a ladylike perfect. Amusingly, of the main five â€Å"PR † ranges wherein ladies thought they had a feeling of being agreeable, the main genuine public area Was the communal library (Day, 1999). The ordinarily had a view Of the library as an issue and well thought-of spot was affirmed by Luckier with Hopkins in their investigation of significant libraries in Toronto plus Vancouver. They established that â€Å"agreed the soaring number and differing qualities of library linens consistently, no doubt both of these libraries are amongst the most secure public areas in their separate urban communities. † This penchant of wellbeing didn’t rely upon vicinity of safety employees and reconnaissance cams to the degree that on the supporters themselves: â€Å"the clients have been generally policing toward oneself: they hold one another under wraps. † The public library, hence is qualified as an issue† â€Å"public space for relationship fabricating likewise (Luckier Hopkins, 2002). Conclusion To fight the slaughter of public area and absence of urban commitment, People need to reconstruct communal agenda and re-establish the idealistic organization of Pros. A kind of approach to accomplish this is to bestow a congregation to public talk. A PR constructing by method for libraries is liberated, non-condemnatory, and out of harm. It is open nighttimes and weekends, halfway found, release to each and every group, financial foundations, political and gender introductions, and diversions. It is a genuine public area and a perfect circumstance for outflow of assorted presumptions on opinionated and societal topics. How to cite Political PR essay, Essays

Thursday, December 5, 2019

Impact of Working Memory Training Among the Elderly

Question: Discuss about theImpact of Working Memory Training Among the Elderly. Answer: Introduction Human beings just like computers have got memory system that enable them execute various functions in their lives. To add on various cognitive roles such as language mastery, reading and learning is mainly aided by a working memory (WM). By definition and according to Klimova1, working memory is a theoretical construct referring to the structures and processes associated with our ability to keep information in mind while we actively use and respond to the information. Research has proven beyond doubt that this memory usually degenerates as the age of a human being goes beyond a certain time. However, it is not known neither has it been established, a particular time in a human being where the degeneration starts. Statement of the problem Whereas it is also found in other age groups, the cases are usually not pronounced as in the elderly. The few cases found in other age groups may be young is usually due to other medical conditions other than old age. Numerous researches have been carried out to establish the cause and come up with a treatment to help the condition but in vain. It is just recently after the search for a cure for the condition proved futile that the research shifted to the brain. They thought of how to modify what the brain can do. They were thinking from the premise that certain activities can influence cognitive processes of the brain. It is therefore against this background that this research study wants to know whether the computer oriented programs for training has an impact on working memory Objectives of the study The main objective of this research study was to establish whether computer-based working memory training leads to improvement of the capacity of working memory. Significance of the study This research study is very important since it is one of its own kind. Researchers and psychologists will find this piece of work important as they will be able to learn the extent of working memory that can be influenced by employing computer training programs. Literature Review A research done by Basak2 on 1500 participants of the ages between 20 and 85 years to assess the working memory on visual and verbal aspects reported that the visual aspect began deteriorating earlier in the females than the males. On the verbal aspect, the study recorded an almost equal rate of deterioration between the two genders. Another research study conducted by Saunders4 and Johansson3 on the memory of patients who had brain injury pointed out those individuals who trained exhibited an improvement in the working memory examination tests. Compared to those who were subjected to a control group, they did far much better. This research therefore concluded that, structured and intense computerized working memory trainings improve peoples cognitive skills. Another study by Takeuchi5 associates overeating with memory loss. It asserts that accumulation of more calories at an advanced age may lead to cognitive impairment though in mild proportions. The study was conducted on about 1200 individuals aged between 70 and 79 years. They were then categorized into three groups according to the number of calories they took in a day. The research concluded from their findings that those that fed on more calories in a day had double chance of suffering mild cognitive problems. Methodology Research design This research study employed a descriptive design. This is mainly because the variables involved were mostly quantitative hence a quantitative research method. Data sampling The study used both probability and non-probability sampling methods. Non-probability sampling method that was employed in this study was purposive sampling. Data collection methods This research study had a total of thirty six respondents who included both male and females. Their ages were spread between 65 years and 79 years. These participants were subjected to a working memory training for with the aid of standard computer methods. After the first session of training they were subdivided into two equal groups of 18 individuals each. This division was done randomly without using any trick. One group which was the control group was allowed to continue with the initial standard computer methods training while the test group was subjected to a new training. They used a memory game application which is hand-held. They were then tested and results recorded. Data analysis The data collected was analyzed through excel worksheet and statistical package for social sciences, SPSS. Result The bar chart below shows the comparison of scores of the test group before and after the training The bar graph above is a grouped bar graph that compares PRE and POST CANTAB scores for the test group. It can be observed keenly that the test scores after the training was administered were higher than those before administering the training. Disscusion The purpose of this research study was to establish whether computer memory game app training on working memory have got a positive impact. Prior to conducting the research, the assumption was this computer training boosted the working memory of the elderly people. Administering tests before and after computer enabled training on the memory was apt for this study since apart from sounds, the elderly participants would also be able to see appealing graphics that could enhance ones memory to remember. And as such the results found in these tests after the working memory training is 99% reliable. The test administered was tailored in such a way that they could easily be understood by the elderly individuals. The process and methods applied while collecting information in such a psychological test had to appear soft and friendly. The study ensured this because since this is a psychological research dealing with the brain, participants had to be put in a sweet frame of mind. This is becau se any distraction caused in the process of the study could interfere with the mood hence the working memory of the participants. Coincidentally, after conducting the experiment, the results indeed confirmed the studys prior assumptions that the training boosts the working memory of the individuals. This is manifested by the test scores of evaluations done before and after the trainings. It was found that the scores improved after training. A comparison in marks of all the 18 participants showed that there was an improvement. There was no even one individual that scored a lower mark than the initial mark after the working memory training. In the control group, significant difference was witnessed in terms of the marks that were scored before and after the working memory training. In fact, in some cases the marks after they were subjected to control working memory training were lower than before the training. This is an indication or evidence that training working memory has got a positive impact on the elderly individuals. However, there were still some aspects of this research that were not able to be tested. Just as in previous researches on working memory, when or a particular time when the memory starts deteriorating among the elderly has proven difficult to establish. Similarly, in this research study, parameters or variables with which to use to measure the time period was difficult to identify. As also recorded in other researches mainly in psychology, individuals just like in this study could not tell with a lot of certainty the time when they realized they were suffering from memory loss. Conclusion From the research results, it can be concluded that computer memory game apps training on working memory has got a positive impact on working memory. This is evidenced by the CONTAB memory scores which were lower before WM training and got higher after WM training. However, a lot of research has to be done on this topic to address the gaps or questions that have remained unanswered for a long time. Gaps such as the age around which problems with memory starts and whether it is unique to the elderly alone or applicable to the young too need to be addressed by future researches. Though memory problem among is widespread among the elderly only as this study has established. The difference in working memory capacity before and after enhancing the memory is not much significant. This can be established from the test scores where the range hardly went beyond three marks. This could mean so many things for this research. Either the computer training is not the best method of training the wo rking memory or the working memory cannot just change beyond a certain limit. Another dimension of this could be that the working memory can only be trained for a particular period of time only after which it just degenerates to the status it was in before subjection to training. It can also be concluded that human working memory is so powerful and do not deteriorate much even as one advances in age. This is evidenced the high marks that were scored by the participants. Most of the participants were able to recall over eighty percent of the staff after the working memory training. References Klimova, B. Computer-based cognitive training in aging. Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience. 2016; 8, 313. Basak, C., Boot, W.R., Voss, M.W., et al. Can training in a real-time strategy videogame attenuate cognitive decline in older adults? Psychology and Aging. 2008. Johansson B, Tornmalm M: Working memory training for patients with acquired brain injury: effects in daily life. 2012, Saunders NL, Summers MJ: Attention and working memory deficits in mild cognitive impairment. J Clin Exp Neuropsychology 2010, 32(4):350357. Takeuchi H, Sekiguchi A, Taki Y, Yokoyama et al: Training of working memory impacts structural connectivity. J Neurosci 2010,

Thursday, November 28, 2019

Sdlc for Food Ordering System Essay Example

Sdlc for Food Ordering System Paper Introduction Generally, as it was mentioned in our first assignment, we supposed to choose any organization and try to develop an accurate system for it. We chose â€Å"Taktaz Restaurant† which serves Iranian traditional foods as our target and decided to develop an â€Å"online food ordering system† for it. We use Structured Analysis Method, which is time-tested and easy to understand method, as our system developing technique. Structured Analysis uses a series of phases, called the system development life cycle (SDLC), to plan, analyze, design, implement, and support an information system. In the first assignment we asked to concentrate on the first two phases of SDLC, planning and analyzing. In this assignment we are going to do last three phases, which are design, implement and support. The most important parts of these three phases that we are supposed to do in this assignment are as following: a. Output and user interface design b. Data design – ER Diagram c. System architecture d. System implementation (system prototype) – specify the hardware, software and platform used. e. System support maintenance Output Design Types of output In the system design phase, we will create the actual forms, reports, documents and other types of output. During this process we must consider the format and how it will be delivered, stored and retrieved. 1. Internet-Base Information Delivery Output In our information system we used internet-base information delivery as the output type. To support our online food ordering system, we have provided user-friendly screen interfaces that display output and accept input from customers. Customers visiting the site can check available food items and their prices in our menu, then can register for online ordering. 2. Screen Report Output We will write a custom essay sample on Sdlc for Food Ordering System specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Sdlc for Food Ordering System specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Sdlc for Food Ordering System specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Our information system also provides daily reports for Taktaz manager. To be useful, a report must include the information that a user need. Our system provides daily detailed reports in two categories: i. Total amount of daily orders ii. Total number of daily orders grouped by different customers’ name The examples of our system detailed report are shown in following. Total amount of daily orders Total number of daily orders grouped by different customers’ name As you can see, our system detailed report provides total for numeric fields. It also adds tax percentage to total selling amount for giving better estimation. The report also have auto incremental control field to controls output. User Interface Design Although output design involves a separate set of physical design issues, it is a part of the user interface (UI). User interface describes how users interact with a computer system and consists of all the hardware, software, screens, menus, functions, output and features that affect two-way communications between the user and the computer. Our customers through the website will work with a varied mix of input, output and, indirectly, date queries as they perform ordering process. Because all those tasks require interaction with the computer system, the user interface is a vital element in the systems design phase. It is important to design a user interface that is easy to use, attractive and efficient. To achieve these goals we have used following rules: 1. Focusing on basic objectives According to this rule, we tried to create a simple design that is easy to learn and understand. We aimed to design a logical and attractive layout as well. 2. Building an interface that is easy to learn and use. Based on this rule, we only used images that users can understand easily, to dentify icons. We also made it easy to return to any level in our menu structure system. 3. Minimizing input data problems We provided data validation checks and event-driven message and reminders as you can see in below sample from our system screen shot. 4. Providing feedback to users According to this rule, we made all of our feedback messages specific, understandable and professional. We a lso displayed messages on top of the screen and follow consistency every time. 5. Designing an attractive layout To satisfy this rule we tried to fulfill following guidelines in layouts of our system. Use appropriate colors to highlight different areas of the screen. †¢Use hyperlink that allows user to jump to related topics. †¢Group related objects and information by using similarity and proximity principles of Gestalt Theory. †¢When the user enters data that completely files the field, don’t move automatically to the next field. We asked users to confirm the entries by pressing ok icon and tab key at the end of every fill-in field. User Interface Controls We include many control features, such as: †¢menu bar or †¢command button †¢text box †¢drop-down list box Date design Basic understanding of data design concepts includes data structure and the characteristics of file processing and database system which including web-based database design, will help the system analyst to come out with good and fulfilled information system. A data structure is a framework for organizing and storing data in an information system. Typically it contains files or tables that are linked in various ways. These files or table is data all about people, places, things or events that interact with the information system. A file processing system or more known as a file-oriented system, stores and manages data in one or more separate files. While, a database system consists of linked tables that form one overall data structure which offers great flexibility and efficiency in processing data. Database Management System (DBMS) is a collection of tools, features and interfaces that enable users to add, update, manage access and analyze the contents of a set of data. Data manipulation language is one of DBMS component which controls database operations, including storing, retrieving, updating and deleting data. Moreover, the complete definition of a database together with descriptions of all fields, tables and relationship, is called a schema. A subschema is a view of the database used by one or more systems or users and typically classifies only those portions of the database that a particular system or user needs or is allowed to access. Data dictionary †¢Ã¢â‚¬Ëœempprofile’ Table This table supposed to store information about the staff of Taktaz. If the value for â€Å"active† column of this table become ‘a’, then the proposed staff can log in as an administrator. †¢Ã¢â‚¬Ëœfoodmnu’ Table This table stores data of available foods in the food menu. ‘order’ Table This table contains data of the ordered items. †¢ ‘userprofile’ Table This table stores information of registered customers. Entity Relationship Diagram (ERD) An entity-relationship (ER) diagram is a specialized graphic that illustrates the interrelationships between entities in a database. To design a system it is necessary to uses these models during the requirements analysis to describe information needs or the type of information that is to be stored in a database The entities for our system would be customers, order, bill, inventory and kitchen. The relations the attributes are shown in the following ERD diagram. Use Case Diagram Use case diagram is a type of behavioral diagram defined by and created from a Use-case analysis. Its purpose is to present a graphical overview of the functionality provided by a system in terms of actors, their goals (represented as use cases), and any dependencies between those use cases. The users of our system are customers, manager, kitchen staffs IT supporters. According to our systems point of view we can implement a use case diagram as given below. System Architecture System architecture is the conceptual model that defines the structure, behavior, and more views of a system. The system architecture includes seven issues which are as follow: 1. Enterprise resource planning (ERP) 2. Initial and total cost of ownership (TCO) 3. Scalability 4. Web Integration 5. Legacy system interface requirements 6. Processing options 7. Security issues The Taktaz Restaurant had no online reservation or ordering system for customers, so to have such a system, we are required to design completely a new online system (or a website). The first step was to analyze the system which the restaurant was working for. Everything in Taktaz, buying the ingredients , preparation ,ordering and delivery process, was done manually. We needed to have the owner’s idea about the old system and the expectation of the new system. By knowing a clear idea of the future system, we started to design an online food ordering system that fulfilled the restaurant requirement and expectations. Developing a new system has its own cost and we, as designer should have deal with it. The desire system and design must be cost-effective to the owner and also to us to design, operate and perform the system. Also the maintenance cost should be noticed in the designing stage. The new system should be flexible enough so that the users (restaurant’s owner and staff) can easily work with it and if needed, make some changes in it, expand, change or even downsize to meet the changing needs of the business. We tried to consider all of the above mentioned issues in the designing the system. However, some of them needed and took much more time than the others. For instance, to perform scalability or the last mentioned issue, we must interview with the owner and staff of the restaurant to get their idea and expectation of the oncoming system and then, we could interpolate those ideas to the system. As a designer, we should consider many more issues in the developing of the system. First of all, we should notice how user friendly the website will be. In a project, especially in online ordering, it is extremely important that how user deal with the website, whether the user can use and access the different section of the website in the first attempts or not. It was one of our main concerns. The administrator section also was one of our concerns. This section, which is the management section, must be designed in a way that the manager (or website controller) can easily work and modify the system. The website should be as simple as possible so that the first time users can easily understand how to work with it. Also it must be as easy to use as possible for administrator to manage the ordering website. We should design a system with a minimum number of errors. To achieve it, we should first accurately analyze the requirements and expectations of the restaurant’s owner and after gathering all different information, and then we start to design a website. Designing of the website needed to be looked from two perspectives: as administrator and as customer. Obviously a website with many errors is not a comfortable website for neither of both users. From the password protection to billing the order, security threats and defenses were a major concern to us. As analysts and designers, we should consider and determine how the business (restaurant) will deal with the security threats. Users (usually customers), they put their personal information and details in the system. So they must do it trustfully and have no doubt about the security of the system. Our System Architecture Diagram is coming in below. System Architecture Diagram System Implementation Prototyping produces an early, rapidly constructed working version of the proposed information system. Prototyping, which involves a repetitive sequence of analysis, design, modeling and testing is a common technique that we used to design our system. Our system is being run on windows as its Platform. In addition, since it is based on the internet connections, the Network Card must be installed and used. A KEY must be defined and generated for security purposes and boot strap to prevent entering any unauthorized parties and any viruses and worms. We used PHP and our IDE is Dreamviwer. For our database we use MySQL. System Support Maintenance System support maintenance is the modification of the system. We have to correct faults, improve system’s performance and adapt the system to environment and requirements changes. The objective of our maintenance is to keep our system always running at an acceptable level. Corrective maintenance diagnoses and corrects errors operational levels. In this type of maintenance we will try to correct Design errors, Coding errors and Logic errors. Applying the Corrective maintenance can be helpful to avoid probable bugs and to fix logic errors. . In our project, which is Online Food Ordering System, the first step of support maintenance is to ensure that the issues related to programming and coding are correctly run. Debugging and troubleshooting can be the second step. The coding is the most important part to check especially when you are dealing with financial issues related to ordering. Therefore, we must be sure about the correctness of all functions and modules in our coding and proper connection with database to store and retrieve data. In addition to the software hard ware must also be checked regularly. Adaptive maintenance adds enhancements to an operational system and makes the system easier to use. Adaptive maintenance entails changes related to our applications operating environment. These modifications cam consist of Incorporating new operating systems, Hardware configuration changes, Regulations Localizations alterations and Changes in data format. As our system goes on we need to enhance our system with new features, capability and functions in response to new technology. Adaptive maintenance in our system is related to update new features. For example, adding new meals or recipes to the current menu, can ensure the capability of our system. Also when we need to upgrade or add new functions to the system we need to apply the adaptive maintenance. Perfective maintenance involves changing an operational system to make it more efficient, reliable or maintainable. Perfective maintenance can improve maintainability and performance. It involves computer programmers who work to improve the way software program functions or how quickly it processes requests. For example to change our menu layouts, command interfaces for some functions or changing the number of daily orders. The other maintenance type which is useful for our system is preventative maintenance. In this kind of maintenance we try to predict and avoid probable problems before occurring . For example, to ensure that our system is scalable to have more customers in the future, we must check if our system is able to handle high data loading and other stressful operations without problem or we need to limit the number of daily orders to avoid problems. Installing antivirus software to protect our system from attacks, having a regular backup schedule to use it when something wrong goes with the system, are also examples of preventative maintenance that we can apply simply for our system. Appendix Perform research on the Internet to learn more about Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) and develop a TCO checklist that includes the five most important elements of TCO. Relate your answers to your Assignment 2. (Please put this analysis as appendices in Assignment 2 report). Total cost of ownership (TCO) generally includes ongoing support and maintenance costs, as well as acquisition costs. TCO totally formed from two different types of cost, which are Direct and indirect costs. Direct costs can be measured in dollars. These costs result from a decrease in expenses, an increase in revenues or both. If we want to list the most important elements of direct costs for an information system, the list would be as following: 1. Hardware and software (capital and lease expenses) In our project, because we do it in-house and we didn’t pay for hardware or software, this part didn’t add any cost to our TCO. 2. Support ( maintenance, training, travel etc) In this project, our group members have done all SDLC phases based on their knowledge gain from SAD course and have used their background knowledge for programming parts. Therefore, we didn’t pay for training. But, there are some costs for transportation and traveling to and from Taktaz restaurant which is placed in Serdang. 3. Development Because we did the whole project in-house with our group members, we didn’t pay any extra fees for labors or out-sourcing. 4. Communication fees The biggest part of our project costs, was communication fees which we paid to contact our group members in each phase of SDLC. Indirect costs are difficult to measure in dollars but are important and need to consider as a part of TCO. The most important indirect costs in our project are indicating in below. 1. User time User time cost is the cost of users supporting themselves and each other instead of out-sourcing costs. Costs for user formal training, casual learning, and self-studies are included in user time cost. We needed to learn some issues mostly related to programming part by ourselves during the project. 2. Opportunity cost The highest valued alternative that we need to forego when we are doing our project is part of opportunity cost or downtime cost . lost wages can be a measurement for this kind of costs.